Electrochemical Detection of 4-Nitrophenol by Using Graphene Based Nanocomposite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes: A Mini Review
This article describes the fabrication of electrochemical devices for the detection of a key environmental pollutant, 4-Nitrophenol (4-NPh). 4-NPh is a requirement for the synthesis of organophosphate pesticides. These pesticides are mostly used in the agricultural sector to obtain a high yield of agricultural products. The use of 4-NPh in the agricultural field results in poisonous levels of this compound in the soil and water. Different techniques have been used for its transformation by biological and chemical degradation. However, these strategies not only created highly toxic pollutant but also need fast operation and time consuming processes. In this background, we have reported a broad and efficient review of the electrochemical reduction of 4-NPh as a feasible alternate method. In this review paper, graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), N-doped graphene oxide, functionalized graphene oxide, metallic nanoparticles coated graphene oxide, metal oxides covered on rGO, polymer functionalized graphene oxide and hybrids materials functionalized with graphene oxide (hydroxyl apatite and β-cyclodextrin) which have been fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to enhance the electrocatalytic reduction and increase the sensor activity of 4-NPh are discussed. We have also described the effects of a few interfering phenolic pollutants such as aminophenol, hydroquinone, o-nitrophenol (o-NPh), trinitrotoluene, trinitrophenol, 2, 4-dinitrophenol (4-DNPh) and nitrobenzene. In the paper, easy and more effective electrochemical methods for the detection of 4-NPh with graphene- based nanocomposites modified on GCE for 4-NPh detection are summarized and discussed.