An Energy-Efficient Learning Automata and Cluster-Based Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
Keywords:WSN, clustering, energy efficiency, PSO, learning automata, network lifetime, LEACH
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which may be used for a broad variety of applications, have recently emerged as a prominent data collection paradigm. The fundamental concerns in wireless sensor networks are the efficient use of energy and the reliable delivery of data, both of which are largely determined by the rate at which packets are dropped. When developing an energy-efficient routing protocol, one of the most important steps is selecting a node to act as a successor node in a routing path. The application of learning automata theory to guide the routing decisions made by the sensors in a WSN has recently been the subject of research in the field of WSNs, where it has been shown to have several advantages. In this paper, a learning automata-based PSO relay selection scheme for energyefficient relay selection and reliable data delivery is proposed. The network is clustered using the LEACH protocol. The random number in the traditional LEACH protocol will be stabilized with the sensor node energy level for CH stability. Every sensor node in the network estimates the best possible routes to the sink node using the PSO algorithm. Instead of retransmissions, here we introduce learning automata for successor node selection during packet loss. The proposed learning automata calculate the next node’s selection probability in a routing path using multi-objective parameters like communication cost, residual energy, distance from BS, buffer size, and previous selection probability. Performance evaluation clearly showed that the proposed approach decreases energy usage, transmission delays, and data transfers while extending network lifetime. According to the experimental results, the proposed scheme can improve energy efficiency by 21.68%, delay by 31%, PDR by 87%, routing overhead by 0.5%, and throughput by 18.76% as compared to existing techniques like O-LEACH (Optimized Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Protocol) and EEPC (enhanced energy proficient clustering).