Fossil Fuel to Renewable Energy: A Pathway to Environmental Sustainability in India
Keywords:environmental sustainability, energy systems, wind energy, solar energy, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency
The term Sustainability moved fast and made a rapid stride across every corner of the world. The most impactful usage of the phrase 'environmental sustainability' was made by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). In Indian parlance, it has been used in the context of energy requirements and the environment. To make 21st-century India, we must convert the crisis into opportunities by seeking alternative energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, etc., instead of currently used fossil fuel energy which is responsible for 76% of the greenhouse. Switching from fossil fuel sources and their mitigation lead to energy conservation and energy efficiency with the ultimate aim of graduating to renewable energy sources. Funding of clean energy has been largely unaffected by the COVID-19 pandemic and pandemic-related economic stimulus package offering possibilities for green recovery. No single interpretation of how the concept of Sustainability applies to energy has been accepted globally. The current energy system is responsible for the climate change, air pollution, and biodiversity loss. The concept of Sustainable energy development has been hovering around emission and energy security. However, since the early 90s, the concept has been broadened to encompass wider social and economic issues. India is producing 37% of its energy through renewable sources, which helped India improve its Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Index (RECAI) ranking as 3rd in the world with 66.2 scores. This paper deals with the progress of India's commitment to zero carbon emission by 2070 and the challenges and opportunities ahead.