Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Applications-A Review
Special Column on Microbial Nanotechnology
Keywords:ecofriendly approach, green synthesis, microorganisms, nanoparticle, nanobiotechnology
Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary science developed since the 1970s and has found tremendous commercial applications owing to their unique properties. Nanoscale materials are of the order of 1-100 nm and offer extremely advantageous optical, electronic and structural properties that are characteristic due to size-controlled features than their bulk materials. Biological methods are alternative sources of nanoparticle synthesis compared to physical and chemical techniques. Microorganisms can be used for production of different kinds of nanoparticles which are highly suitable for many industrial applications. This review provides an overview of nanotechnology, with a brief discussion of the development of nanotechnology since the ancient world and highlights the biogenic approaches of mono- and bi-metallic nanoparticle biosynthesis by different microorganisms. The mechanisms of intracellular and extracellular biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by microorganisms is illustrated. The classical microscopic and spectroscopic techniques used for investigating the nanoparticle characteristics are also described in detail with hints for practical analysis. Meanwhile, the applications of metal nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents are summarized. In conclusion, this review includes a final outlook in the field of Microbial Nanotechnology.